Research Guide:

Should you publish your paper in a non-UGC approved Journal?

According to the UGC website information: The UGC-approved List of Journals contains journals identified by the Standing Committee on Notification of Journals. Articles published in UGC-approved List of Journals would be considered for the purpose of Career Advancement Scheme (CAS) and Direct Recruitment of Teachers and other academic staff as required under the UGC (Minimum Qualifications for Appointment of Teachers and other Academic Staff in Universities and Colleges) Regulation, 2016. The UGC-approved List of Journals includes titles that have crossed a prescribed threshold on quality check criteria developed by the Members of the Standing Committee on Notification of Journals.

This clearly shows that if you are a student doing your master or bachelors in any university in India you may or may not publish your paper. This list of journals is the recommendation for the Career Advancement Scheme (CAS) and Direct Recruitment of Teachers only.

There are various journals that have been serving form last 10 to 15 years or even more are not listed in the UGC list which is a questionable thing. As you know UGC is following the Scopus and ISI list mainly for the sourcing the journals so not many Indian journals are indexed in the Scopus if we talk about the science and engineering field. So if you go for the publication of an international journal which is non-Indian that may charge you 200USD to 2000USD per paper. The time duration will be also very high for the review and publication which may hamper your career.

UGC is only providing a reference list which does not mean that, if one journal is not there in the list it’s a fake journal. ISSN is the authority for the Issuing license for the journal not the UGC.
So one must consider the non-UGC approved journals also for the publication of the papers during the Masters and Bachelors.

What is the difference between Journal papers & Conference papers?

A Journal is a regular periodical publication, published  say monthly or bi-monthly, containing a collection of peer reviewed papers. The Journal may be National or International. The Journal Must have an ISSN. According to wiki an academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny and discussion of research. They are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews.
Academic journals are periodicals in which researchers publish their findings, mostly the recent ones. Academic journals are typically peer-reviewed journals that publish theoretical discussions and articles that critically review already published work. Academic journals serve as an important forum for researchers and academicians from where they can access important information about recent developments in their field. These journals are the first choice for any in-depth examination of an issue related to science. Science as we know is scarcely imaginable without the academic journal. Academic Journals fall under the academic category as they strictly adhere to peer-review process and follow the format by publishing mostly the original work. Academic journals publish periodically and contain a series of articles in each published issue.

The purpose of an academic journal, according to the first editor of the world's oldest academic journal Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, and contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, and perfecting all Philosophical Arts, and Sciences."

While the terms "Academic" and "Scholarly" can often be interchanged,
·        Academic Journals: EBSCO defines academic journals as journals that publish articles which carry footnotes and bibliographies, and whose intended audience is comprised of some kind of research community.
·      Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals: Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals are journals that are intended for an academic audience and are peer-reviewed.

An Academic conference/International Conference or symposium is a conference for researchers (not necessarily academics) to present and discuss their work. Together with academic or scientific journals, conferences provide an important channel for exchange of information between researchers. Conferences are usually composed of various presentations. They tend to be short and concise, with a time span of about 10 to 30 minutes; presentations are usually followed by a discussion. The work may be bundled in written form as academic papers and published as the conference proceedings.
Usually a conference will include keynote speakers (often, scholars of some standing, but sometimes individuals from outside academia). The keynote lecture is often longer, lasting sometimes up to an hour and a half, particularly if there are several keynote speakers on a panel.

In academia, proceedings are the collection of academic papers published in the context of an academic conference. They are usually distributed as printed volumes or in electronic form either before the conference opens or after it has closed. Proceedings contain the contributions made by researchers at the conference. They are the written record of the work that is presented to fellow researchers and they are considered as grey literature.
The quality of the papers is typically ensured by having external people read the papers before they are accepted in the proceedings. All Conference proceeding have an ISBN number.

Important points:
1.     The paper which is published in the Conference proceeding may be published in any one of the international Journal. It depends upon the Conference organizing board to finalize the paper for the journal for the further review process.
2.  The Review process for journal takes several days or in some cases several months. However most of the Journal publishers has the complete rights to select or reject any paper
3.   Both Conference and Journal publication are important however it gives more value if the paper gets published in any of the International Journal.

Is Google scholar better than Scopus and Web of Science indexed journals?

Google Scholar Citations provide a simple way for authors to keep track of citations to their articles. You can check who is citing your publications, graph citations over time, and compute several citation metrics. You can also make your profile public, so that it may appear in Google Scholar results when people search for your name, e.g., richard feynman.

Best of all, it's quick to set up and simple to maintain - even if you have written hundreds of articles, and even if your name is shared by several different scholars. You can add groups of related articles, not just one article at a time; and your citation metrics are computed and updated automatically as Google Scholar finds new citations to your work on the web. You can choose to have your list of articles updated automatically or review the updates yourself, or to manually update your articles at any time.

H-Index: The h-index is an author-level metric that attempts to measure both the productivity and citation impact of the publications of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a scholarly journal as well as a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested in 2005 by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist at UCSD, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number.
The Web of Science also uses the H-Index to quantify research output by measuring author productivity and impact.
H-Index = number of papers (h) with a citation number ≥ h.  
Example: a scientist with an H-Index of 37 has 37 papers cited at least 37 times.  

Advantages of the H-Index:
  • Allows for direct comparisons within disciplines
  • Measures quantity and impact by a single value.
As can easily be verified in Table-1, Google Scholar is the most democratic of the three data sources in that it provides the highest level of citations for all ten academics in our sample, with the exception of our Pharmacist.

Table-1,  Source: harzing.com

Table-2,  Source: harzing.com

As is readily apparent form Table-2, for the academics working in the Social Sciences and Humanities, the differences between Google Scholar on the one hand, and ISI or Scopus on the other hand are much larger than for academics working in the Sciences.

There are many reports and study has been conducted time to time over the Indexing and Impact Factor of the Journals Comparing Google Scholar on the one hand and ISI and Scopus on the other hand provides mixed results. For the academics working in the Sciences, Google Scholar's advantage over Scopus is larger than over ISI (except for the Computer Scientist). For the academics working in the Social Sciences and Humanities, this pattern is reversed in that Google Scholar's advantage over ISI is larger than over Scopus. However, in virtually all cases Google Scholar provide the highest citation count, reflecting its broader coverage in terms of sources compared to both ISI and Scopus and its longer coverage in time compared to Scopus.

How to prepare yourself to present your research paper in any International/National Conference ?

An oral presentation is more than just reading a paper or set of slides to an audience. How you deliver your presentation is at least as important in effectively communicating your message as what you say. Use these guidelines to learn simple tools that help you prepare and present an effective presentation, and design PowerPoint slides that support and enhance your talk.

Preparing an Effective Presentation
An effective presentation is more than just standing up and giving information. A presenter must consider how best to communicate the information to the audience. Use these tips to create a presentation that is both informative and interesting:
·         Organize your thoughts. Start with an outline and develop good transitions between sections. Emphasize the real-world significance of your research.
·         Have a strong opening. Why should the audience listen to you? One good way to get their attention is to start with a question, whether or not you expect an answer.
·         Define terms early. If you are using terms that may be new to the audience, introduce them early in your presentation. Once an audience gets lost in unfamiliar terminology, it is extremely difficult to get them back on track.
·         Finish with a bang. Find one or two sentences that sum up the importance of your research. How is the world better off as a result of what you have done?
·         Design PowerPoint slides to introduce important information. Consider doing a presentation without PowerPoint. Then consider which points you cannot make without slides. Create only those slides that are necessary to improve your communication with the audience.
·         Time yourself. Do not wait until the last minute to time your presentation. You only have 15 minutes to speak, so you want to know, as soon as possible, if you are close to that limit.
·         Create effective notes for yourself. Have notes that you can read. Do not write out your entire talk; use an outline or other brief reminders of what you want to say. Make sure the text is large enough that you can read it from a distance.
·         Practice, practice, practice. The more you practice your presentation, the more comfortable you will be in front of an audience. Practice in front of a friend or two and ask for their feedback. Record yourself and listen to it critically. Make it better and do it again.
PowerPoint Tips
Microsoft PowerPoint is a tremendous tool for presentations. It is also a tool that is sometimes not used effectively. If you are using PowerPoint, use these tips to enhance your presentation:
·         Use a large font. As a general rule, avoid text smaller than 24 point.
·         Use a clean typeface. Sans serif typefaces, such as Arial, are generally easier to read on a screen than serif typefaces, such as Times New Roman.
·         Use bullet points, not complete sentences. The text on your slide provides an outline to what you are saying. If the entire text of your presentation is on your slides, there is no reason for the audience to listen to you. A common standard is the 6/7 rule: no more than six bulleted items per slide and no more than seven words per item.
·         Use contrasting colors. Use a dark text on a light background or a light text on a dark background. Avoid combinations of colors that look similar. Avoid red/green combinations, as this is the most common form of color blindness.
·         Use special effects sparingly. Using animations, cool transition effects, sounds and other special effects is an effective way to make sure the audience notices your slides. Unfortunately, that means that they are not listening to what you are saying. Use special effects only when they are necessary to make a point.
Presenting Effectively
When you start your presentation, the audience will be interested in what you say. Use these tips to help keep them interested throughout your presentation:
·         Be excited. You are talking about something exciting. If you remember to be excited, your audience will feel it and automatically become more interested.
·         Speak with confidence. When you are speaking, you are the authority on your topic, but do not pretend that you know everything. If you do not know the answer to a question, admit it. Consider deferring the question to your mentor or offer to look into the matter further.
·         Make eye contact with the audience. Your purpose is to communicate with your audience, and people listen more if they feel you are talking directly to them. As you speak, let your eyes settle on one person for several seconds before moving on to somebody else. You do not have to make eye contact with everybody, but make sure you connect with all areas of the audience equally.
·         Avoid reading from the screen. First, if you are reading from the screen, you are not making eye contact with your audience. Second, if you put it on your slide, it is because you wanted them to read it, not you.
·         Blank the screen when a slide is unnecessary. A slide that is not related to what you are speaking about can distract the audience. Pressing the letter B or the period key displays a black screen, which lets the audience concentrate solely on your words. Press the same key to restore the display.
·         Use a pointer only when necessary. If you are using a laser pointer, remember to keep it off unless you need to highlight something on the screen.
·         Explain your equations and graphs. When you display equations, explain them fully. Point out all constants and dependent and independent variables. With graphs, tell how they support your point. Explain the x- and y-axes and show how the graph progresses from left to right.
·         Pause. Pauses bring audible structure to your presentation. They emphasize important information, make transitions obvious, and give the audience time to catch up between points and to read new slides. Pauses always feel much longer to speakers than to listeners. Practice counting silently to three (slowly) between points.
·         Avoid filler words. Um, like, you know, and many others. To an audience, these are indications that you do not know what to say; you sound uncomfortable, so they start to feel uncomfortable as well. Speak slowly enough that you can collect your thoughts before moving ahead. If you really do not know what to say, pause silently until you do.
·         Relax. It is hard to relax when you are nervous, but your audience will be much more comfortable if you are too.
·         Breathe. It is fine to be nervous. In fact, you should be all good presenters are nervous every time they are in front of an audience. The most effective way to keep your nerves in check aside from a lot of practice before hand is to remember to breathe deeply throughout your presentation.
·         Acknowledge the people who supported your research. Be sure to thank the people who made your research possible, including your mentor, research team, collaborators, and other sources of funding and support.

Sharing your work can help you expand your network of contacts who share your research interests. For undergraduate researcher who intend to complete a graduate degree, presenting can be an invaluable experience. We recommend discussing your interest in sharing your research with your faculty advisor. They can help match your interests with the appropriate venue

Tips to avoid plagiarism while writing research paper for Journal or Conference.

When you use ideas, facts, and opinions that are not your own -- even when you don't use the author's exact words -- you must give appropriate credit to the author as you incorporate his or her ideas into your paper. If you don't do so, you're committing plagiarism, one of the most serious offenses in academe. According to Katharine Hansen  If you don't do so, you're committing plagiarism, one of the most serious offenses in academe. Virtually every school has an honor code that prohibits plagiarism, and consequences range from failing the assignment or class in which the plagiarism occurred to being expelled from your college.

According to our previous article “Whatis Plagiarism and How to avoid this?” by Mr. A Dash, Member of IEEE ,Managing editor and Research Consultant , the plagiarism must be checked by a software and the author always try to write the paper in own words. He/She may take help from the experts to avoid the plagiarism. There are other ways to avoid plagiarism. Follow some simple steps while writing your research paper to ensure that your document will be free of plagiarism.

Using an Author's Exact Words:
  • Use quotation marks around all words copied from a source.
  • Choose to quote an author's exact words when the phrasing is unique or strengthens your argument.
  • Provide a citation for the source of the exact words you used immediately after the quotation.
So you have found information that is perfect for your research paper. Read it and put it into your own words. Make sure that you do not copy verbatim more than two words in a row from the text you have found. If you do use more than two words together, you will have to use quotation marks. We will get into quoting properly soon.

Citing Your Own Material 
If some of the material you are using for your research paper was used by you in your current class, a previous one, or anywhere else you must cite yourself. Treat the text the same as you would if someone else wrote it. It may sound odd, but using material you have used before is called self-plagiarism, and it is not acceptable.

One of the most important ways to avoid plagiarism is including a reference page or page of works cited at the end of your research paper. Again, this page must meet the document formatting guidelines used by your educational institution. This information is very specific and includes the author(s), date of publication, title, and source. Follow the directions for this page carefully. You will want to get the references right.

Respecting Others
Giving credit for work that is not your own respects and honors the intellectual property of others and is expected by your professors

According to Writecheck:  A writer will never gain good writing skills if he or she does not create their own work. Not procrastinating and beginning papers early will help to squelch the temptation to cheat by plagiarizing. The writer's academic, professional, and personal reputation is too valuable to lose over a moment of laziness or weakness. Using a plagiarism checker is a helpful way to check for plagiarism, even accidental, and ensure that writing is original and well cited.

Reference: www. writecheck.com, www.mycollegesuccessstory.com, www.nwmissouri.edu

Disclaimer: The content of the website is subject to change. The information on hyper linked or referred to web sites is neither investigated nor analyzed by the conference organizers. No warranty or representation, express or implied, is given as to the accuracy or completeness of that information. In no event will the conference organizers accept any liability with regard to the information contained in this web site or any other hyper linked or referred to web sites.

Note:The authors are hereby informed that we do not have any refund policy. The Authors cannot withdraw the paper after the submission of publication fee. Fee submitted for a research paper will not be refunded as per our policy.